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As for the features of the relationship between AAS use and somatoform and/or eating disorders, Pope and Katz [54] showed that 18.2% of 88 male weightlifters who abused AASs reported a history of muscle dysmorphia, compared to none of the 68 male weightlifters who did not use AASs (controls). Blouin and Goldfield [105] examined the relationship between body image disturbances, eating attitudes, and AAS use in 43 male bodybuilders vs. 48 runners and 48 martial artists of the same sex, all recruited from fitness centers. Bodybuilders showed significantly greater body dissatisfaction, with a high tendency to bulk and thinness, and increased inclinations towards bulimia than the other two groups. Additionally, they reported higher perfectionism and ineffectiveness, as well as lower self-esteem. They also consumed more AASs and had freer attitudes towards AAS use. The main reason for taking AASs, according to AAS users, was physical improvement: AAS users reported a stronger drive to put on muscle mass in the form of bulk, more maturity fears, and greater tendencies towards bulimia than AAS nonusers. Thus, male bodybuilders seem to be at risk for body image disturbances and the associated psychopathological characteristics that have been commonly observed in patients with eating disorders. These psycho-pathological characteristics also appear to predict AAS use in this group of men.




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The consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is common in the Mediterranean Diet, which is largely known to have several health benefits and to increase longevity, as reported by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2010 [8,9]. As recently reported in the III International Conference on Virgin Olive Oil and Health Consensus Report, EVOO intake is also associated with reduced risk of most ageing-related diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases (CVD and NDD), and some types of cancer [10]. Initially, the beneficial properties of EVOO were attributed to functional components such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and PUFAs), like oleic acid (55 to 83% of total fatty acid (FA)), the essential FA, linoleic acid (3 to 21% of total FA), and linolenic acid (0 to 1.5% of total FA). However, recent epidemiological and experimental studies also show that minor bioactive compounds, including phenolic alcohols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, 3,4-DHPEA) and tyrosol (p-hydroxyphenylethanol, p-HPEA), secoiridoid derivatives, phenolic acids, lignans, and flavonoids contribute to the beneficial effects of EVOO [11,12,13]. A high biophenol content confers a high stability to EVOOs, preventing EVOO autoxidation and contributing to a long shelf-life.


Ole belongs to the secoiridoids, which are abundant in Oleaceas, Gentianales Cornales, as well as many other plants. Iridoids and secoiridoids are compounds that are usually glycosidically bound, and are produced from the secondary metabolism of terpenes, as precursors of various indole alkaloids. The secoiridoids in Oleaceae are usually derived from the oleoside type of glucosides (oleosides), which are characterized by an exocyclic 8,9-olefinic functionality, a combination of elenolic acid and a glucosidic residue [16]. Ole is an ester of elenolic acid and HT, and has a oleosidic skeleton that is common to the secoiridoid glucosides of Oleaceae (Figure 1)


More-recently, Momtaz et al. [149] has shown the influence of Ole on melanoma. Melanoma is certainly one of the most aggressive skin cancers, due to its progression to drug resistance and its organ dissemination. Among the signalling pathways able to control melanoma development, janus kinase signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAKs/STATs) are the most critical, and polyphenols are able to target the most active, STAT3.


Starting from the epidemiological observation that obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing many cancers, and metastatic dissemination represents the leading cause of mortality of cancer patients, a study by Song et al. [155] suggests that Ole inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in mouse melanoma cells, abrogating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis through the reduction of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and the infiltration of M2 macrophages, both responsible for the secretion of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis inducers, VEGFA and D, respectively.


European explorers changed the world in many dramatic ways. Because of them, cultures divided by 3,000 miles or more of water began interacting. European countries claimed large parts of the world. As nations competed for territory, Europe had an enormous impact on people living in distant lands.


A final motive for exploration was the desire to spread Christianity beyond Europe. Both Protestant and Catholic nations were eager to make new converts. Missionaries of both faiths followed the paths blazed by explorers.


Spain and Portugal dominated the early years of exploration. But rulers in rival nations wanted their own share of trade and new lands in the Americas. Soon England, France, and the Netherlands all sent expeditions to North America.


Having colonies was a key part of this policy. Nations looked to their colonies to supply raw materials for their industries at home. These industries turned the raw materials into finished goods that they could sell back to their colonies, as well as to other countries. To protect this valuable trade with their colonies, rulers often forbade colonists from trading with other nations.


In the United States, turmeric is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA as a food additive (110). An increase in gallbladder contractions was observed in 12 healthy people supplemented with single doses of 20 to 40 mg of curcumin (111, 112). Yet, serious adverse effects have not been reported in humans taking high doses of curcumin. A dose escalation trial in 24 adults found that single oral dosages up to 12 g were safe, and adverse effects, including diarrhea, headache, rash, yellow stool, were not related to dose (7). In a phase I trial in Taiwan, curcumin supplementation up to 8 g/day for three months was reported to be well tolerated in patients with precancerous conditions or noninvasive cancer (8). Another clinical trial in the UK found that curcumin supplementation ranging from 0.45 to 3.6 g/day for four months was generally well tolerated by people with advanced colorectal cancer, although two participants experienced diarrhea and another reported nausea (9). Increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were also observed in several participants, but it was not clear whether these increases were related to curcumin supplementation or cancer progression (3). In an open-label phase II trial, curcumin treatment (8 g/day) in combination with the anticancer drug gemcitabine was associated with severe abdominal pain in 7 out of 17 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, leading to the treatment being discontinued in five patients while curcumin dosage was reduced to 4 g/day in two patients (79).


Some curcumin supplements also contain piperine to increase the bioavailability of curcumin. Piperine may also interfere with efflux drug transporters and phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes and increase the bioavailability and slow the elimination of a number of drugs, including phenytoin (Dilantin), propranolol (Inderal), theophylline, and carbamazepine (Tegretol) (121-123).


83. Mahammedi H, Planchat E, Pouget M, et al. The new combination docetaxel, prednisone and curcumin in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a pilot phase II study. Oncology. 2016;90(2):69-78. (PubMed)


89. Lang A, Salomon N, Wu JC, et al. Curcumin in combination with mesalamine induces remission in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis in a randomized controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(8):1444-1449 e1441. (PubMed)


107. Lechtenberg M, Quandt B, Nahrstedt A. Quantitative determination of curcuminoids in Curcuma rhizomes and rapid differentiation of Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. by capillary electrophoresis. Phytochem Anal. 2004;15(3):152-158. (PubMed) 041b061a72


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